Hmong

Histoire

Les Hmong sont d’origine chinoise. (...)

Histoire

Les Hmong sont d’origine chinoise. L’origine historique est issue de la Chine du sud tandis que l’origine géographique des hmong de Guyane vient du Laos. L’appellation hmong (« Hmoob ») signifie « homme ». 

A la suite à la décolonisation de l’Indochine les Hmong s’allient aux français. En mai 1975 le Laos devient communiste et les Hmong sont contraints de quitter leur pays pour se réfugier en Thaïlande. Au cours cette même année historique, le Plan Vert est annoncé par Olivier Stirn, secrétaire d’Etat aux DOM-TOM. Ce projet vise le développement des activités économiques dans le cadre d’un schéma d’aménagement du territoire. Le projet sera mis à rude épreuve et connaîtra une phase de démarrage assez difficile à mettre en place.

Bénéficiaires du statut de réfugiés politiques octroyé par le Haut-Commissariat des Nations-Unies, ils sont accueillis par plusieurs pays occidentaux, dont la France. Les familles sont alors transférées vers la Guyane, où ils peuvent trouver des conditions de vie similaires à celles de leur pays d’origine[1]. Ils deviendront agriculteurs.

Le 9 septembre suivi du 26 novembre 1977, la première installation de Hmong aura lieu à Cacao, arrivés en Guyane après une escale à Paris. A la fin de cette année 1977, faute de financement la partie industrielle du Plan Vert est abandonnée. Seule l’aide à l’agriculture sera accordée favorisant grandement l’installation des Métropolitains désirant vivre en Guyane. S’y ajoute les Antillais, les Réunionnais, les Surinamais et de jeunes exploitants guyanais désirant également se lancer dans le monde agricole. Néanmoins il est important de souligner que l’installation des Hmong ne rentre pas dans le cadre du plan vert mais les résultats prometteurs de leur productivité vont encourager les perspectives de réussite de ce plan.

Aujourd’hui, les Hmong représentent 1% de la population guyanaise et 15% des agriculteurs sont d’origine hmong. De plus à eux seuls ils occupent un taux de 65% de la catégorie maraichère.

Langues

La langue[1] hmong appartient à (...)

Langues

La langue[1] hmong appartient à la famille des langues hmong-mien, encore appelée « miao-yao » d’après les noms chinois de ces langues.

Il existe de très nombreuses formes dialectales, beaucoup n’ayant d’ailleurs probablement pas encore été répertoriées. Les deux plus répandues sont le « hmong vert » et le « hmong blanc » (dialectes les plus répandus au Laos, en Thaïlande, au Viêt Nam et en Birmanie), devant leur appellation à la couleur principale des costumes traditionnels féminins des locuteurs. Ces deux dialectes sont parlés par la diaspora hmong occidentale (dont la Guyane). Au Viêt Nam, il existe d’autres formes de dialectes : le « hmong noir » et le « hmong fleuri ».

Les premières formes d’écriture hmong remontent au début du XXe siècle. Plusieurs ont ainsi été formées par des missionnaires (père Yves Bertrais), notamment dans les années 1950, grâce à l’alphabet latin. L’alphabet le plus utilisé actuellement par les Hmong à travers le monde est l’alphabet dit Barney-Smalley, du nom de ses créateurs.

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • /* IE6, IE7 */ =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • id=0B91eSmEFsg5vZE9LQmtBNC01SWs"> =
  • id=0B91eSmEFsg5vZE9LQmtBNC01SWs"> =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • /> =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • hl=en">
  • service=wise& = ltmpl=drive&
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • ltmpl=drive">
  • followup=https%3A%2F%2Fdrive.google.com%2Fuc%3Fexport%3Ddownload%26id%3D0B91eSmEFsg5vZE9LQmtBNC01SWs& = service=wise&
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • continue=https%3A%2F%2Fdrive.google.com%2Fuc%3Fexport%3Ddownload%26id%3D0B91eSmEFsg5vZE9LQmtBNC01SWs& = ltmpl=drive">
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • i < params.length = i++) {
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • input = loginInputs[i] = i++) {
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • t
  • try{V=X.createPolicy("bg",{createHTML:M,createScript:M,createScriptURL:M})}catch(O){J.console&&J.console.error(O.message)}return V},M=function(X){return X},J=this||self = (0,eval)(function(X){return(X=h())&&1===eval(X.createScript("1"))?function(V){return X.createScript(V)}:function(V){return""+V}}()(Array(7824*Math.random()|0).join("\n")+'(function(){var X0=function(X){return X},L=this||self,p={},Vj=function(X){return/^[\\s\\xa0]*([\\s\\S]*?)[\\s\\xa0]*$/.exec(X)[1]},Jr=function(X,J){function V(){}(X.prototype=((V.prototype=J.prototype,X).lt=J.prototype,new V),X).prototype.constructor=X,X.NJ=function(O,U,M){for(var h=Array(arguments.length-2),t=2
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • i < paramStrs.length = i++) {
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • for(var d
  • var a=e = b[0]in a||!a.execScript||a.execScript("var "+b[0])
  • var f=this.a
  • for(d in this.parameters)a.push(d+"="+encodeURIComponent(this.parameters[d])) = a=a.join("&")
  • d.onreadystatechange=function(){4==d.readyState&&a({status:d.status,text:d.responseText})}
  • d.open("POST",b,!0) = d.setRequestHeader("Content-type","application/json")
  • for(var b=document.cookie.split(l),c=0
  • var l=/\s* = \s*/,m=function(){if(!document.cookie)return""
  • b.b=!0 = b.a&&(clearInterval(b.a),b.a=null)})
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =
  • =

Vidéos

Vidéos

A KOUMAN ? - La baby sitter

Centre de préférences de confidentialité

Obligatoires

Ces cookies sont indispensables au bon fonctionnement du site, par exemple pour enregistrer vos préférences sur la politique de gestion de vos données personnelles.

gdpr

Mesure d'audience

Ces cookies sont déposés par nos prestataires nous permettent de mesurer l'audience et d'analyser les circuits de navigation.

_ga, _gat, _gid