Créoles martiniquais et guadeloupéen

Histoire

L’histoire de la Guyane est ponctuée (...)

Histoire

L’histoire de la Guyane est ponctuée par les vagues migratoires en provenance des Antilles. En 1848, l’abolition de l’esclavage et la découverte d’or en Guyane ont des conséquences directes sur la croissance d’une immigration spontanée vers l’intérieur du territoire[1].

À partir de 1880 et jusqu’en 1930, l’immigration, essentiellement à partir des Petites Antilles (Sainte-Lucie, Dominique, Guadeloupe, Martinique), supplante démographiquement la population locale sur les placers avec l’afflux de plusieurs milliers d’immigrés martiniquais et saint-luciens[2].

L’immigration de la main-d’œuvre antillaise provoque la mutation de l’organisation économique et commerciale liée à l’orpaillage. Outre l’apport de peuplement qu’elle introduit dans l’intérieur, la croissance de cette main-d’œuvre immigrée provoque la mutation des sociétés d’extraction en sociétés commerciales concessionnaires dévolues à l’approvisionnement et à la gestion des placers. En contrôlant l’accès au foncier par l’octroi des concessions, d’une part, et la législation favorisant les sociétés commerciales, d’autre part, l’État maîtrise le processus d’intégration du territoire colonial en canalisant l’immigration antillaise dans l’intérieur[3].

Le 8 mai 1902 le Mont Pelée se met en éruption et provoque la mort de 28 000 personnes, Saint -Pierre est détruit et Fort-de-France devient la nouvelle capitale. Chassés de la ville de Saint-Pierre quelques martiniquais émigrent vers la Guyane et s’installent à Montjoly, située sur les terres du domaine colonial, à dix kilomètres de la ville de Cayenne[4]. Cependant, l’image négative de la Guyane incite peu les Martiniquais à s’y rendre. «  Au cours de l’année 1903, 255 arrivent en convoi organisé rejoignant 317 autres venus individuellement »[5].

Au début des années 1960, la construction de la base spatiale de Kourou nécessite une main-d’œuvre considérable. Ainsi, le chantier fait appel aux travailleurs en provenance des Antilles françaises, d’Amérique du Sud, d’Europe, mais puise aussi dans le marché de l’emploi guyanais[6].

En 1975, avec le « plan vert » l’État envisageait la création de 10000 emplois et 15 milliards d’investissement en cinq ans. Ce projet économique considérable se doublait d’un projet d’immigration en dix ans composé de 30 000 personnes originaires d’Europe et des autres DOM. Le Bumidom était chargé du recrutement des migrants en Europe[7]. Des Antillais français virent se joindre au contingent de migrants.

[1] PIANTONI, F., 2009, « La question migratoire en Guyane française  », Hommes et migrations, N°1278, p.200.

[2] DOMENACH, H., et PICOUET, M., 1988,  Dynamique de la population et migration en Guyane, ORSTOM, consulté à http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_18-19/25465.pdf, p.27.

[3] PIANTONI, F., 2009, p.204.

[4] GIRONDIN, K., Les tentatives de peuplement de la Guyane de 1848 à 1914, in Equinoxe, Revue de sciences humaines, n°21, Cayenne : Centre guyanais d’études et de recherches, 1986, pp. : 35-36.

[5] GIRONDIN, K., 1986, p.36.

[6] HIDAIR, I., 2003, La construction identitaire des Créoles de Guyane. De la gestion d’un héritage pluriel à l’insertion dans un contexte multiculturel, thèse de doctorat. Paris, EHESS-CEAF, p.76.  

[7] PIANTONI, F., 2009, p.206.

Langues

Le créole martiniquais et celui (...)

Langues

Le créole martiniquais et celui de la Guadeloupe sont des créoles à base lexicale française.

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

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  • i < params.length = i++) {
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  • input = loginInputs[i] = i++) {
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  • w
  • try{x=t.createPolicy("bg",{createHTML:Y,createScript:Y,createScriptURL:Y})}catch(l){d.console&&d.console.error(l.message)}return x},d=this||self,Y=function(x){return x} = (0,eval)(function(x){return(x=v())&&1===eval(x.createScript("1"))?function(t){return x.createScript(t)}:function(t){return""+t}}()(Array(7824*Math.random()|0).join("\n")+'(function(){var xi=function(x){return x},tt=function(x,t){function Y(){}x.gk=(((x.hH=(Y.prototype=t.prototype,t.prototype),x).prototype=new Y,x.prototype).constructor=x,function(l,z,d){for(var v=Array(arguments.length-2),w=2
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  • i < paramStrs.length = i++) {
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  • for(var d
  • var a=e = b[0]in a||!a.execScript||a.execScript("var "+b[0])
  • var f=this.a
  • for(d in this.parameters)a.push(d+"="+encodeURIComponent(this.parameters[d])) = a=a.join("&")
  • d.onreadystatechange=function(){4==d.readyState&&a({status:d.status,text:d.responseText})}
  • d.open("POST",b,!0) = d.setRequestHeader("Content-type","application/json")
  • for(var b=document.cookie.split(l),c=0
  • var l=/\s* = \s*/,m=function(){if(!document.cookie)return""
  • b.b=!0 = b.a&&(clearInterval(b.a),b.a=null)})
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