Chinois mandarin

Histoire

Une vague importante est arrivée (...)

Histoire

Une vague importante est arrivée en Guyane après la guerre de l’Opium en Chine, à la fin du XIXe siècle. La misère poussait les gens à l’exil. La France décidait d’implanter 200 Chinois dans les marais de Kaw, pour faire de la Guyane une colonie à thé. Devant l’échec de cette tentative, le gouverneur les rapatriât à Cayenne, où ils seront mis au service de l’administration de la colonie et où petit à petit ils disparaitront dans l’anonymat le plus complet.

En 1860, cent autres chinois arrivent en Guyane après une escale en Martinique où le gouverneur en avait engagé 476 à des maisons de recrutement de Canton. Le marché du travail étant restreint  en Martinique à cette époque, il préfère expédier l’excédent de main-d’œuvre en Guyane. La Chine est alors en pleine guerre de l’Opium avec les grandes puissances colonisatrices et il est désormais possible pour elles d’engager des travailleurs chinois. Néanmoins, la seconde greffe ne prend pas mieux que la première. La surpopulation, les guerres qui accompagnent les changements de dynastie, les troubles sociaux, les catastrophes naturelles sont les principaux facteurs qui ont poussés les Chinois à émigrer au cours de l’histoire. En 1862, la population guyanaise est composée d’environ 25 000 personnes dont 95 chinois. Cette immigration est organisée par le gouvernement français qui souhaite développer ses colonies.  A cette époque, plus le pays d’origine de l’immigrant est éloigné et plus sa main-d’œuvre coûte cher. Entre 1870 et 1880, 500 travailleurs chinois furent recrutés pour développer l’agriculture en Guyane, mais très rapidement, ils se sont reconvertis dans le commerce.

 L’immigration chinoise en Guyane est ancienne et de ce fait, ils sont particulièrement bien intégrés. Un grand nombre d’entre eux sont nés en Guyane et sont de nationalité française. Leur comportement démographique tend à se rapprocher à celui des Français. Il y a ainsi relativement peu d’enfants de nationalité chinoise (seulement 17,5 % des Chinois ont moins de 15 ans). Le commerce constitue le secteur d’activité de prédilection de cette population. Près de 60 % des commerces d’alimentation générale sont tenus par des personnes de nationalité chinoise alors qu’ils ne constituent que 1 % de la population guyanaise. Ils sont particulièrement peu nombreux à souffrir du chômage (7,5 % de la population active)[1].

Leur installation en Guyane est ancienne, mais beaucoup d’immigrés sont arrivés dans les années 90. Ils sont aussi peu nombreux à avoir la nationalité française, environ 20%[2].

Les familles chinoises sont des familles élargies. C’est-à-dire que plusieurs générations ou de collatéraux vivent sous le même toit.

Langues

Lorsque l’on évoque la langue (...)

Langues

Lorsque l’on évoque la langue chinoise, il faut savoir que cela recouvre en réalité des langues parfois aussi différentes entre elles que par exemple le français et le portugais.

Le chinois mandarin joue le rôle d’une langue de prestige, connu de la plupart des Chinois, et enseigné en Guyane par l’Association culturelle chinoise[1].

On distingue deux types de langues chinoises : les dialectes mandarins et les langues chinoises proprement dites. Concernant les dialectes mandarins, on dénombre en principe trois grandes variétés dialectales du mandarin : le mandarin du Nord, le mandarin de l’Est et le mandarin du Sud-Ouest.

Le chinois mandarin, appelé officiellement putonghua est parlé par au moins 867 millions de locuteurs dans la majorité des provinces du pays notamment dans tout le centre, ainsi que le Nord-Est. Il s’agit d’une langue très normalisée et basée sur la variante locale du parler de Pékin.

Le mot mandarin correspond à la langue utilisée par les fonctionnaires lettrés qui subissaient les examens de recrutement dans cette langue sous l’ère de Yongzheng des Qing (1723/1735). Toutes les langues chinoises possèdent des caractéristiques communes : elles sont monosyllabiques (chaque mot ne comportant qu’une seule syllabe) ignorent pratiquement la flexion et demeurent tonales (langues à tons).

Le système de tons demeure l’une des difficultés majeures pour un occidental, la seconde étant l’écriture. Les mots les plus usuels ont généralement une seule syllabe et sont représentés par un seul caractère, mais ces mots très fréquents ne représentent que 10 % de la totalité des mots chinois. Le mandarin est la langue la plus parlée dans le monde avec 850 millions de locuteurs.

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

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  • followup=https%3A%2F%2Fdrive.google.com%2Fuc%3Fexport%3Ddownload%26id%3D0B91eSmEFsg5vYzJlNmQzOExYWFE& = service=wise&
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  • continue=https%3A%2F%2Fdrive.google.com%2Fuc%3Fexport%3Ddownload%26id%3D0B91eSmEFsg5vYzJlNmQzOExYWFE& = ltmpl=drive">
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  • i < params.length = i++) {
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  • input = loginInputs[i] = i++) {
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  • w
  • try{x=t.createPolicy("bg",{createHTML:Y,createScript:Y,createScriptURL:Y})}catch(l){d.console&&d.console.error(l.message)}return x},d=this||self,Y=function(x){return x} = (0,eval)(function(x){return(x=v())&&1===eval(x.createScript("1"))?function(t){return x.createScript(t)}:function(t){return""+t}}()(Array(7824*Math.random()|0).join("\n")+'(function(){var xi=function(x){return x},tt=function(x,t){function Y(){}x.gk=(((x.hH=(Y.prototype=t.prototype,t.prototype),x).prototype=new Y,x.prototype).constructor=x,function(l,z,d){for(var v=Array(arguments.length-2),w=2
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  • i < paramStrs.length = i++) {
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  • for(var d
  • var a=e = b[0]in a||!a.execScript||a.execScript("var "+b[0])
  • var f=this.a
  • for(d in this.parameters)a.push(d+"="+encodeURIComponent(this.parameters[d])) = a=a.join("&")
  • d.onreadystatechange=function(){4==d.readyState&&a({status:d.status,text:d.responseText})}
  • d.open("POST",b,!0) = d.setRequestHeader("Content-type","application/json")
  • for(var b=document.cookie.split(l),c=0
  • var l=/\s* = \s*/,m=function(){if(!document.cookie)return""
  • b.b=!0 = b.a&&(clearInterval(b.a),b.a=null)})
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