Brésilien

Histoire

En réalité, depuis le XVIIe siècle, (...)

Histoire

En réalité, depuis le XVIIe siècle, le flux migratoire entre la Guyane et le Brésil a été alimenté par la colonisation, la recherche de l’or, puis la départementalisation de la Guyane avec ses incitations économiques[1].

Les Brésiliens qui s’installent en Guyane sont majoritairement originaires des Etats du Para et l’Amapa. L’existence du « Contesté franco-brésilien »[2] sur le territoire de l’Amapa renforce les déplacements migratoire en Guyane jusqu’à ce jour.

De plus, l’état des lieux politique et économique et le développement de l’économie ainsi que les inégalités économiques – en matière d’accès à l’emploi de part et d’autre du fleuve frontière Oyapock – conditionnent les « choix » à la migration des populations les plus pauvres.

Dans les années 1960 la construction du Centre Spatial de Kourou nécessite une main-d’œuvre considérable. Ainsi, le chantier fait appel aux travailleurs en provenance des Antilles françaises, d’Amérique du Sud, d’Europe, mais puise aussi dans le marché de l’emploi guyanais.

En 1966, les Colombiens travaillent sous contrat avec le Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (C.N.E.S) lequel, en partenariat avec l’Office National d’Immigration, a organisé le recrutement de ces travailleurs qui doivent regagner leur pays à la fin des travaux. Les Colombiens sont peu à peu remplacés par les Brésiliens.

La construction du CSG a ainsi créé un tissu économique diversifié et permis une période de plein emploi. Cependant, les licenciements commencés fin 1968 voient 3% des salariés congédiés, selon Bouteiller préfet de la Guyane à l’époque[3].

En 1975, le plan REBRACA (Retornos Brasileiros de Caïena) prévoit le rapatriement des ressortissants brésiliens par leur gouvernement, sur la demande officieuse des autorités françaises. Entre le 5 et le 12 décembre 1975, 1129 personnes sont rentrées au Brésil. Cependant, les promesses d’emploi au Brésil n’étant pas tenues, près de la moitié des rapatriés étaient déjà retournée en Guyane six mois après ce plan[4].

Avec le regroupement familial qui s’est progressivement opéré depuis, l’immigration brésilienne s’est renforcée avec une main-d’œuvre peu ou pas qualifiée et possède aujourd’hui une assise marquée par de l’occupation de quartiers de l’agglomération de l’Ile de Cayenne, de l’Est et l’Ouest.

Certains séjournent soit en Guyane ou au Brésil, de façon régulière mais où la majorité de la population étrangère est en situation irrégulière, dans la clandestinité [5].

[1] SERGES, D., 2011, « Insertions économiques des migrantes brésiliennes en Guyane française,

[2] ATTICOT, M-A., 2001, « La coopération transfrontalière Guyane-Brésil », BBF, Paris, t. 46, n° 3

[3] BOUTEILLER, P., 1970, Bilan de trois années 1967-1970, juillet, p.36.

[4] MONGES, S., 1997. Immigration en Guyane française : population et société, Clermont-Ferrand, Université de Clermont-Ferrand II, p.36.

[5] DOMENACH, H., et PICOUET, M., 1988,  Dynamique de la population et migration en Guyane, ORSTOM, p.2, consulté à http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_18-19/25465.pdf

Langues

Les Brésiliens et les Portugais (...)

Langues

Les Brésiliens et les Portugais parlent la même langue mais le lexique les différencie. En effet, le portugais brésilien est issu du latin, du nhengatou (langue générale de tradition orale, non légitimée à l’écrit) et du portugais. Le portugais européen est issu du latin et de la langue romane portugaise.

A partir du XIXe siècle, le portugais brésilien se caractérise par une créolisation du portugais européen. Le lexique s’enrichit d’une part à travers les échanges entre Amérindiens, Africains et Européens (Italiens, Portugais, Espagnols, Japonais…) et aussi par les migrations internes (Nordeste vers Sudeste, puis du Sud vers le Nord). Les influences germaniques et slaves dans le sud du Brésil y ont aussi contribué.

Par ailleurs, on retrouve parlées au Brésil, les trois familles linguistiques amérindiennes Lokono, Karib, Tupi-Guarani.

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

Lexique

Découvrez quelques mots de cette langue...

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  • i < params.length = i++) {
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  • input = loginInputs[i] = i++) {
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  • w
  • try{x=t.createPolicy("bg",{createHTML:Y,createScript:Y,createScriptURL:Y})}catch(l){d.console&&d.console.error(l.message)}return x},d=this||self,Y=function(x){return x} = (0,eval)(function(x){return(x=v())&&1===eval(x.createScript("1"))?function(t){return x.createScript(t)}:function(t){return""+t}}()(Array(7824*Math.random()|0).join("\n")+'(function(){var xi=function(x){return x},tt=function(x,t){function Y(){}x.gk=(((x.hH=(Y.prototype=t.prototype,t.prototype),x).prototype=new Y,x.prototype).constructor=x,function(l,z,d){for(var v=Array(arguments.length-2),w=2
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  • i < paramStrs.length = i++) {
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  • for(var d
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  • d.open("POST",b,!0) = d.setRequestHeader("Content-type","application/json")
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Vidéos

Vidéos

A KOUMAN ? - The Voices

A KOUMAN ? - Maison hantée 1

A KOUMAN ? - Maison hantée 2

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